Stephane Groueff: Start from the beginning and if you can give me in a few words the history of how it started, who actually came into contract, and how?
Stephane Groueff: One thing I don’t understand, and it’s a very ignorant question, but what was actually the difference between [Enrico] Fermi’s experiment in ’34 and [Otto] Hahn’s? Because, why do we say that Hahn was the first one, while Fermi also bombarded uranium?
Lew Kowarski: I don’t it’s true to say that Hahn was the first one.
Groueff: It’s not true.
Kowarski: I think it’s one of those simplifications—there are people who find them all right. I don’t.
Cindy Kelly: This is Cindy Kelly. It is July 31, 2013, Santa Fe, New Mexico, and with me is Nancy Bartlit. I want her to say her full name and spell it.
Nancy Bartlit: My full name is Nancy Reynolds Bartlit, N-A-N-C-Y R-E-Y-N-O-L-D-S. Bartlit is B-A-R-T-L-I-T.
Gilbert Church: During the construction period there were several fellows that I could suggest you see. One of them would be Phil Gardner, for example. He was a recruiter on the road, and that was one of the biggest problems that we had, was getting manpower. He would know all the detail of that. So would Buster Harris, Bill Taylor—they were associated with the operation of the camp on Burton on a day-in day-out basis.
Stephane Groueff: Is there a movie about Hanford?
Stephane Groueff: Recording. Now we are recording the interview with Mr. Walter Carpenter, DuPont, Wilmington, [Delaware].
[Interviewed by Cynthia Kelly and Tom Zannes.]
Russell Jim: My name is Russell Jim, R-U-S-S-E-L-L, J-I-M.
Can you tell us what the land at Hanford has meant to the Yakama people?
Cindy Kelly: Okay, let us get started. Cindy Kelly with Atomic Heritage Foundation, September 6, 2013. I am here with Smith. The first question is please say your name and spell it.
Ray Smith: My name is Smith. That is R-A-Y S-M-I-T-H. I am the historian at the Y-12 National Security Complex.
Well I was very young at the time. I went down there in 1943, down to Oak Ridge, TN. They were interviewing at Princeton where I was going to school. They guys said that they had a very important war project going on down there. And I said, “Oh what’s it all about?”
And they said, “Oh, we can’t tell you what it’s all about.”
So I said, “Gee, why should I go at a place if you can’t tell me what it’s all about.”
Reba Holmberg: My name is Reba Justice Holmberg and I have lived in Oak Ridge since 1950, but I was born—
Bob Holmberg: 1923.
[Interviewed by Robert W. Mull, from S.L. Sanger's Working on the Bomb: An Oral History of WWII Hanford, Portland State University, 1995]
It came like a bombshell. They announced they were taking the whole valley. For what? We didn't know. At that time, the farmers were short of money and didn't have any place to go, really. So eventually the government appraised it and put the money in escrow for the landowners to draw on. This was estimated as their just compensation.